Technology for the next generation cars
"Electrification of the automobile has accelerated as a global worming countermeasure. Hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles are expected to make a reduction of CO2 emission drastically compared to the gasoline engine cars. CATALER has been developing a high function carbon material with two works that are storing electricity (Accumulation) and flowing electricity (Discharge). We have a strong advantage in precise control of the fine pore structure. Carbon is old and new material and we make use of our experience that we have had as an activated carbon maker since our company was established"
"Hybrid Vehicle (HV) uses two types of power, the motor as well as the engine which is for the gasoline car. It is possible to move by an engine or a motor, or powerfully move by both of them. The electricity to power the motor is supplied by converting power of engine and brake to electrical energy. As it is not plug-in type to recharge electricity, the power switches to the engine when electricity is run out during driving and start recharging."
"Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHV) battery is charged up by plug-in.
This is the big difference between the Hybrid Vehicle. Therefore PHV has an auxiliary engine. "
※1. There is no technical difference in two names "PHV" and "PHEV", they are the names called by each car maker.
"Electric Vehicle (EV) is the vehicle powered by electricity. It moves only by the motor power and uses 100% electrical energy. As it doesn't have an engine powered by gasoline there is no need to fuel the car Since EV doesn't have an engine, it doesn't make large engine sound and any vibration. In addition, the muffler is not necessary because it doesn't emit exhaust fumes. EV charges from public charging stations or conventional power outlets. Even if it is difficult to install the charging device at an apartment, fast charging process at the public station takes about 30 minutes or so and sufficient for normal everyday usage. "
"ZEV (Zero Emission Vehicle) is the cars such as the electric vehicle (EV) and the fuel cell vehicle (FCV) that don't emit exhaust gas at all. ZEV requirement of California defines that the car makers have to sell ZEV according to a fixed ratio based on the sales volume if they sell certain number or more of cars. However it is difficult to clear the regulation only by selling EV and FCV, it is allowed to incorporate Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHV) and Hybrid Vehicle (HV) that emit very clean exhaust gas."
ZEV requirement is the regulation implemented by CARB, the California Air Resources Board.
It defines that the car makers have to sell ZEV according to a fixed ratio based on the sales volume if they sell certain number or more of cars. Because there are so many car users in California due to not much public transport and it is said that the area with the worst air pollution in the U.S. due to the topographical features.
"In California, ZEV requirement was applied to six car makers (GM, Ford, Chrysler, Honda, Nissan, TOYOTA) that annual sales of the cars was more than 60,000 as of 2012. And it is going to be applied to middle-sized car makers (BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Hyundai, Kia, Mazda, Volkswagen, SUBARU, Land Rover, Volvo) after 2018 model. In addition, the ZEV requirement is likely to be applied in the states of Arizona, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, New York, Rhode Island and Vermont. Unless the car makers clear this problem, automobile sales will fall into the critical state in the U.S."
"And, after 2018, ZEV requirement will recognize only Electric Vehicles (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHV) as vehicles to meet the requirement though Hybrid Vehicles (HV), the natural gas vehicles and the low-fuel consumption vehicles used to be recognized before 2018, The car makers that ZEV requirement is applied have to develop either of EV, FCV or PHV."
"It is essential for the car makers that ZEV requirement is applied to develop Electrical Vehicle (EV), Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHV) in order to meet the regulation. Actually, it is difficult for the general users to buy those cars because EV still has issues in price of the battery and range, FCV has an issue in hydrogen supply infrastructure. The car makers that have to clear the issues of the market think the cost performance for introducing PHV to existing base car is much better than the development of EV and FCV that need to be specially developed."
In Europe, the new regulation will start in 2020. It regulates CO2 emission limit at 95g/km and it will be severe regulation for the luxury car makers that have line up of the cars with a large displacement engine.
The necessity of PHV is grate in Europe as well because EV has issues in price and range, FCV has issues in price and hydrogen supply infrastructure.
As a result, only the way for the car makers to develop PHV In order to meet both regulations, ZEV requirement in U.S. and CO2 emission regulation to the companies in Europe, And this is the background that the trend is focused on PHV.
Not as serious as issues of EV but every car makers has an issue in supplying Lithium-ion battery. Our carbon is important material for the Lithium-ion battery and expected to be able to improve "Output" that affects acceleration.
"Lithium-ion battery is an electrical device to generate direct-current power using chemical reaction such as oxidation and reduction. The battery has a negative-electrode to sore the lithium ion and a positive-electrode to transfer electron reacted with lithium. The lithium ion woks hurriedly in the lithium-ion battery. There are several materials for the positive-electrode, the negative-electrode and the electrolytes depending on the use and makers. Major components are lithium transition metal composite oxide for the positive-electrode, carbon material for the negative-electrode and non aqueous electrolyte such as organic solvent for the electrolyte. "
※Also called Lithium ion secondary battery, Lithium-ion battery, Li-ion battery, LIB, LiB
We have advanced development of the carbon material that is the constituent material of battery and functional material to store electricity. We have made it possible to store electricity significantly by expanding and controlling space (pore) for the battery reaction in nano-meter size.
Characteristics of our carbon material:Enable to improve output by expanding the pore diameter and providing conductivity
"CATALER was born in 1967 when it was 3 years ahead of the Muskie Act, the Clean Air Act. We’ve challenged R&D for the catalyst for 50 years and gained world recognition for our technology and performance. Our goal is to “Create sustainable recycling society” and “Keep Earth clean.” The future that we have pursued is not a ""Dream that doesn't come true"" but ""Truth that produces result."" We will strengthen the approach to the market of the battery maker for the vehicle."